The Industrialised Building System is a construction technique whereby components are manufactured in a controlled environment. The controlled environment can be on-site or off-site and depends on the component manufactured or the type of building being constructed. Industrialised Building System is the Malaysian term used in Malaysian construction industry for prefabricated construction or pre-fab in short. Its usage has seen an increase in the worldwide construction industry. The system is commonly used in residential and commercial developments in Malaysia.
In the last few decades, prefabrication has made its way into the construction process and is more commonly used today. The system can be used for small components like wall sections or, on a larger scale, as a full-scale floor on a building. Initially used in homes and small-scale projects, the IBS system is now being used in large-scale construction such as hotels.
To put it in simple terms, take a landed property. Using traditional construction methods, every square inch of the property would be constructed on-site, and every component has to be delivered to the construction site. Applying the IBS system, parts of the property, say the walls or stairs, would be constructed off-site, transported to the site and assembled with ease. Imagine building your house to build a house using building blocks or Legos.
根据 acuity.com 的 John L. 的说法，预制（马来西亚的工业化建筑系统）是用于在工厂最终组装施工现场之前制造的预制建筑或建筑组件的总称。另一方面，模块化结构是指在一个独立的单元中构建或组织的东西，类似于构建块。
对于标记为“模块化”的东西，在交付到现场之前，必须在工厂中完成至少 70% 的项目。所有的模块化结构都是预制件，但并非所有的预制件都是模块化结构。模块化设计的一个典型例子是纽约市即将建成的 Ac NoMad Hotel by Marriott，它有 26 层，可能使其成为世界上最高的模块化结构。
Though prefabrication, Industrialised Building System and IBS system may be something new in Malaysia, its history can be traced way back to 3800 B.C. Some examples where prefabrication was used throughout history are: –
虽然术语预制和工业化建筑系统对大多数马来西亚人来说是陌生的，但马来西亚的预制始于 1960 年代。马来西亚的第一个预制例子是 Jalan Pekeliling 的 Tunku Abdul Rahman 公寓，于 1964 年竣工并于 2014 年拆除。该项目包括七栋 17 层公寓、四栋 4 层公寓和一个 40 层的商店.
马来西亚使用预制的另一个例子是槟城岛亚依淡 Jalan Rifle Range 的槟城第一个低成本高层住宅项目。这八座公寓于 1965 年竣工，至今仍屹立不倒。
Today, the Industrialised Building System is being used by many construction field property developers in Malaysia. Gamuda Land’s Rumah Selangorku Jade Hills in Kajang is one of the construction projects employed the Industrialised Building System. Using the system, the 714 units were completed one year ahead of schedule.
The Industrialised Building System with prefabricated elements has also been utilised in non-property development. The most apparent usage of this system is the well-known SMART Tunnel. This megaproject used the Industrialised Building System to prefabricate tunnel linings documented by National Geographic’s Megastructures. The method was also utilised in the underground sections with tunnel forms of the MRT Kajang and Putrajaya Lines.
Other significant projects that have utilised the Industrialised Building System in Malaysia, include: –
Prefabrication allows developers to carry out more work in different places at the same time. A shorter construction time can be achieved to deliver the date production of housing units. Developers can also coordinate their prefabrication processes and the actual construction for a seamless build process without delays, resulting in a shorter construction period. This is evident in the Rumah Selangorku Jade Hills project, where its developer, Gamuda Land, highlighted that prefabrication allowed the project to be completed one year ahead of schedule.
工业化建筑系统等系统允许将最先进的技术集成到预制过程中。今天的预制使用 3D 建模、高精度激光束和人工智能来创建更精致的最终产品。
Transporting large volumes of prefabricated components or large singular components would incur a higher cost than traditional construction methods. Special equipment, specialised personnel and careful planning can contribute towards the high cost of transportation. Reducing the size of the prefabricated component would overcome this hurdle, but it is not a universal solution, especially with large components such as the 100-ton generator above. So, cost could be one of the hurdle in using IBS system.
Utilising machines in systems like the IBS system greatly benefit the construction industry with its many benefits. But if there is a piece of faulty machinery and is not detected in the nick of time, the prefabricated components would not meet the required specifications. And the longer the time taken to detect the faulty machinery, the more fault components will be manufactured, and the higher the cost of rectifying the fault.
Prefabrication is being used more than ever now in the construction industry. The IBS system, unique to 马来西亚，虽然在马来西亚不是相对较新，但比以往任何时候都被更多地使用。工业化建筑系统的好处无疑是存在的，并且极大地有利于建筑行业。
Despite the green light, IBS system is not the future of the construction industry. This is because prefabrication dated back to 3800 BC. Prefabrication has always been there, but its popularity only grew as our technologies and construction methods developed over time.
那么，人们可能想知道如果不是预制，建筑行业的未来是什么？答案最令人惊讶，那就是 3D 建筑打印 (3DCP)。 3DCP 最初是在 1950 年代设想的，但当时可用的技术存在许多无法解决的障碍。随着我们技术的发展，3DCP 成为可能，许多公司都在试验 3D 打印建筑。
YouTube channel B1M mentioned in their video that 3D printing was initially used in small scale prototypes. Still, advancements in 3D printing technology have led to the creation of large scale fully functioning structures.
由 PERI 在德国贝克姆设计的 3D 打印房屋，获得国家政府认证，这是同类产品中的首创。
The completion of the home above opens up 3DCP on a much larger scale than today. The European Space Agency proposed that 3DCP could be used in extra-terrestrial construction on The Moon or Mars. While it may take years for 3D printed buildings to replace traditional construction methods, 3DCP is touted as the future of construction in IBS system.
Industrialised Building Systems (IBS system) may facilitate construction operation as it is become more normal in conventional construction methods. This methods of construction are being used in automotive, pilot projects, modular construction and affordable housing project.